Full text: The national Church of Sweden

d from 
2 Elbe. 
in the 
ines of 
huslén, 
ss. and 
sign to 
vs con- 
ummer, 
Prob- 
South 
» foll.). 
to have 
nes (D. 
ed with 
d Den- 
i some 
rough, 
lace of 
sh, and 
stics of 
unning 
nd in- 
n. To 
in and 
of the 
2 Thor 
ho still 
leys of 
stinctly 
bears 
, while 
d type. 
equally 
.an his 
trast is 
ats the 
§ 7—THIRD PERIOD IRON AGE (A.D. 400—Y00). 23 
flesh of his goats, and drinks the homely ale. Odin’s 
weapon is the spear, Thor’s is the more primitive hammer. 
It is to Odin that all the warriors go after death; Thor gets 
only the thralls *’ (Craigie, l.c., p. 22). 
Thor is specially the god of the Norwegians. 
§ 7.—THE THIRD PERIOD OF THE IRON AGE, 400 A.D.—700 
A.D. HuGLEIK’sS Rap. THE ROMANCE OF 
BrowULF AND WEST GOTHLAND. 
The age of Byzantine gold dates from about 400 A.D., 
and extends to 700 A.D., the beginning of the Viking Age. 
[ have already noticed one striking phenomenon of this 
oeriod—the great influx of Byzantine gold. Besides the 
coins, gold rings of two pounds weight and more have 
been found in Sweden, and as much as twenty-seven 
pounds weight in one hoard. These may be presumed to 
have been made from gold coins melted down. No native 
coins were in use, but bracteate ornaments, stamped with 
figures and runes, barbaric copies of Roman coins, are 
rather frequent. Spiral rings of gold seem to have been 
used in the place of money. The art of this period has 
much beauty, and it shows traces of Celtic influence. To 
this period belong certain remarkable finds at Lake Vendel 
and the three great barrows at Old Upsala (See Montelius: 
Civ., pp. 139-141). In this period we begin to touch 
European history in another direction through Hugleik or 
Hygelak, king of the Weder-Goths, and uncle of Beowulf, 
who may plausibly be identified with the ‘‘ Danish” 
Chlochilaicus, whom Gregory of Tours describes as mak- 
ing a raid upon the kingdom of Theoderic I., one of the 
sons of Clovis (Hist. Franc., Bk. iii., c. 3). This places 
him in the years 511 A.D.—533 A.p. The romance of 
Beowulf itself, which is preserved only in Anglo-Saxon, 
and has a faint Christian tinge, is probably later, but it is, 
[ suppose, substantially the earliest monument of Scan- 
dinavian literature, and the civilization described in it is 
really pre-Christian. If the Weder-Goths lived in tbe
	        
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